Beyond the Database: Native XML and XQuery in the Application Server

July 30, 2011

Native XML support in a database such as DB2 allows you to store, index, query, validate, and update XML documents efficiently. In particular it’s the database support for XQuery and SQL/XML that enables powerful queries and updates of stored XML data, or XML and relational data combined.

However, XML capabilities in the database alone are often not sufficient to manage XML across the enterprise. Integrated XML support is also required in application development tools, ETL products such as DataStage, reporting tools like Cognos, and other critical parts of the IT landscape, such as the application server.

To that end, the WebSphere XML Feature Pack provides developers with key XML technologies to efficiently manipulate XML in WebSphere Java applications. It offers support for:

  • XPath 2.0
  • XQuery 1.0
  • XSLT 2.0
  • and earlier versions of XPath and XSLT, if needed

In essence, you can write Java applications for deployment in WebSphere Application Server and within your Java code use XPath, XQuery, or XSLT directly to work with XML, including transient XML messages. One of the key advantages is that you can apply XPath and XQuery expressions directly to your XML data instead of coding equivalent operations much more tediously via a low-level SAX or DOM API or other object models. This has several benefits:

  • Simplified XML application development
  • Increased developer productivity
  • XML operations are easier to understand and maintain over time

If you think about it, these are the same reasons why you implement many applications in Java (or similar) rather than Assembler: you use the comfort and expressiveness of a higher level language (XQuery) to avoid the complexity, tediousness, and “error proneness” of a lower-level approach.

A second set of benefits emerges when you look at the handling of XML across database and application server. On the database side, the benefits of storing and processing XML natively instead of shredding them to relational format are well-known:

  • Reduced complexity, because shredding any but simple XML documents is a complicated task
  • Increased flexibility, because native XML allows for document variability and schema evolution, whereas shredding relies on a static mapping that breaks easily when new document variations are encountered
  • Improved performance, because the conversion between two different data representations is avoided
  • Guaranteed document fidelity, because the original XML business record stays in its XML format

The very same benefits can be  realized in the middle tier by processing XML natively in the application server. With the XQuery, XPath, and XSLT support in the WebSphere XML Feature Pack you can manipulate XML in its original XML format without having to convert it to a different representation, such as an object structure.

With increasing complexity or variability of your XML documents, converting XML to Java objects becomes increasingly complicated, inflexible, and slow. For example, using JAXB to map XML to objects requires Java classes to be generated that constitute a fixed and inflexible mapping.

And finally, treating XML as XML in the database and the application server realizes all of the above-mentioned benefits across the middle tier and the database by eliminating any impedance mismatch and data conversion between the tiers.

Here are some resources where you can learn more about the IBM WebSphere Application Server V7.0 Feature Pack for XML and see some concrete examples of its use.

Product page and download:

The IBM Red Paper: “Getting Started with the WebSphere Application Server Feature Pack for XML”, includes many examples:

The XML Feature Pack documentation:

And a collection of links to further information:


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